The Cappadocia region is the place where nature and history unite most beautifully in the world. While geographical events constituted the fairy chimneys, in the historical process, people also carved the houses and churches into these fairy chimneys and decorated them with frescoes and carried the traces of thousands of years old civilizations.
In the time of Roman Emperor Augustus, Strabon, one of the writers of Antiquity, specifies the borders of the Cappadocia Region as a wide region extending to the Taurus Mountains in the south, Aksaray in the west, Malatya in the east and eastern Black Sea in the north.
Today’s Cappadocia Region is the area covered by Nevşehir, Aksaray, Niğde, Kayseri and Kırşehir provinces. The rocky Cappadocia Region, which is a narrower area, consists of Uchhisar, Ürgüp, Avanos, Göreme, Derinkuyu, Kaymaklı, Ihlara and its surroundings.
Fairy chimneys formed by erosion and the valleys that amaze everyone with incredible images, rock churches with frescoes that have been built by people for the sake of faith and have preserved their vitality until today, underground places, sometimes eight times, make up today’s Cappadocia. Humanity and nature came hand in hand and revealed one of the wonders of the world.
The geological formation of the Cappadocia region started with the eruptions of Erciyes, Hasan, Melendiz, Göllüdağ and many other small volcanic mountains in the upper miocene age. They have formed a high plateau consisting of different hard tuff layers reaching 100-150 meters over lavas, lakes and streams spread over the region. Over time, today’s valleys have emerged as a result of the incredible wear of this plateau under the influence of erosion, and conical shapes with a harder and wider rock layer on the so-called fairy chimney formed.
With the advantage of the geological structure of Cappadocia, especially with the beginning of the spread of Christianity in Anatolia, the number of monasteries and churches reached the number expressed in thousands and became the center of the Christian monks. In Cappadocia, the place had many monasteries, churches and chapels built; made daily worship held under the supervision of the clergy. Cappadocian churches are famous for the murals we call frescoes. These pictures are generally in two stages. In the first one, the paintings were made directly on the wall and red ocher was used. Such pictures consist of various decorations, shapes and symbols. Secondly, a plaster, sand and straw mixture plaster was made on the rock wall and the subjects were taken from the Bible and Saint Jesus’ scenes, Jesus’ life are depicted.